Ever since Congress passed the Fourteenth Amendment, the United States has ensured equal citizenship rights to fulfill the promise of racial equality. However, in many aspects, a huge gap still exists between the white majority and the other minorities. A report by the Pew Research Center shows that "the median net worth of white households in 2013 was $141,900, about 13 times that of black households at $11,000" (Kochhar and Fry). This huge wealth disparity, according to numerous reports and studies, is one of the many direct results of minority children's underperformance in school. Thus, in order to adequately address the achievement gap, or the disparity between performance of different groups of students, federal and state governments need to allocate more funds into implementing the programs that work. The achievement gap has been an issue in the United States for a long time. A National Assessment of Educational Progress' report conducted in 1970 reveals that there is a persistent 30 point gap in reading and math scores between the white and black students at an age of nine (Barton and Coley). This significant disparity remains consistent throughout their youth, which eventually becomes a disadvantage for the minority students as they enter the job field. Because many of them grow up in poor families and have ill performances in school, they often have low paying jobs and living standards later on. Eliminating the achievement gap will improve the United States' economy drastically. According to Ben Jealous, an American political leader, "closing the [achievement gap] by 2050 would boost our economy by $2.3 trillion" (Jealous). By raising the annual income of minority families, the U.S. economy will pick up accordingly too, and one of the most direct ways to do so is to decrease the achievement gap. A research conducted by McKinsey & Company, a multinational management consulting firm, also shows a similar result. It finds that "the education achievement gap in the United States imposes the economic equivalent of a permanent recession on the nation" (McKinsey&Company), which reaffirms the direct correlation between the achievement gap and the U.S. economy. The federal and state governments, however, are failing to address the achievement gap. Instead of decreasing, it has significantly grown over the past decades despite the many attempted solutions (Tavernise). Sean Reardon, a professor of poverty in education and sociology at Stanford, conducted a study observing the relationship between academic achievement and family income over the past 50 years. The study shows that the reading achievement gap among children born in the 1950s had a standard deviation of about 0.9 between those from high-income families and those from low-income families. Among the cohorts born 40 years after, the gap in standardized test scores widened to a standard deviation of roughly 1.25—a 40 percent increase (Reardon). As the statistics show, students from low-income families continue to fall behind, even when the federal and state government implement educational programs directly addressing the achievement gap. One of the most direct causes of the achievement gap is the insufficient funding of schools. Because nearly half of school funds come from local property taxes, there is usually a disparity in funding for schools due to the variance of tax revenue in each district. A report shows that in Massachusetts, the web of school-choice options is unevenly distributed for the low-income families (Vaishnav 5). Because students from low-income families are often left with poor schools, they have unequal access to high-quality education and are more likely to perform worse than students from high-income families. A comprehensive study produced by University of Chicago researchers also shows a similar result, stating that "a broad range of resources [are] positively related to student outcomes, with effect sizes large enough to suggest
Final Paper Assignment
Religious Attendance and its Affect on Feelings toward Homosexuals
For a long time, it has been known that the more religious an individual is, the less likely he/she would be to have positive feelings toward gay men and lesbians. This is because many religious ideologies characterize homosexuality as a sin. Religion is usually introduced to one at a young age so those attitudes and beliefs would stick with a person despite a changing society, like the…
Week 5 - FINAL PAPER
PSY 303: Abnormal Psychology
Instructor: Dr. Edward Fischer
Client name: Ernest Hemingway
DOB: July 21, 1899
Race: White Ethnical affiliation: Caucasian
Residence: Ketchum, Idaho
Sex: Male Gender: Male Orientation: straight
Religious affiliation: Catholic
Marital status: Married # of children: 3
Education: High School
PRESENTING PROBLEM (Clearly specify the situations…
interesting "hook" to reel your reader in. An introduction can begin with a rhetorical question, a quotation, an anecdote, a concession, an interesting fact, or a question that will be answered in your paper. The idea is to begin broadly and gradually bring the reader closer to the main idea of the paper. At the end of the introduction, you will present your thesis statement. The thesis statement model used in this example is a thesis with reasons.
Even though Parents have the right to choose their own…
I have learned that the United States is very diverse in everything. Not just people, but culture and religion too. There are so many different cultures that live in the United States today it makes my head spin. I ride public transportation to work everyday and to see all the different cultures of people that ride the same thing is wondrous. I just sit back and listen to all the different things going on around me and think “Wow, I am in the “Melting Pot”…
record companies money.
The seemingly innocent act of downloading music for free isn’t just hurting the music industry, but it’s morally wrong for people to do it. When we are children, we are taught not to steal candy for the store, copy a paper from someone else, or to take a CD from a music store. I think we can agree throughout are society it is immoral to steal, but people still don’t see the ethical issues with downloading music illegally. Many people think illegal downloading is like…
I think of capitalism as an economics system that is controlled by individuals and private companies instead of the government. In capitalism individuals and companies own and direct most of the resources used to produce goods and services. People are free to decide how they will earn and spend their income. Companies can decide what goods and services to provide and how much to charge for them. I took this picture while making a quick stop at the bank. I thought Chase bank represented…
Dr.Chew explained that there are four factors that contribute to academic success which are minimizing distractions, maximizing focus, developing accurate metacognition, deep, appropriate processing of critical concepts and practicing retrieval and application. When I watched the videos "How to Get the Most out of Studying" I learned about a lot of ways I could get study better. In the video Dr. Chew explained that an ineffective skill to studying is to just memorize the facts which I find is true…
information about beauty products, Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, Pinterest, E-mail, Blog. There many aspects of beauty products’ information may influence customers’ purchasing behavior. Traditional tool for the advertisements includes paper magazine, word of mouth(Friends and family recommendation ), in store experience, Radio, Television which are still have the influence on customers behavior.
According to collect the various literatures, most of the literature…
Native Americans have had a long and trying journey since the discovery of America. Throughout the course of history they have proven to be driven, fearless, and in many cases even helpful. As we explore the history of the Native Americans through six different events we will see how wars, breaking of peace treaties, and restrictions on their spiritual beliefs forever changed the Native American’s role in America.
First I will like to talk about the Nez Perce people who are Native American people…
Final Research Project
The United States does not provide health care to its citizens the way the rest of the industrialized world does. Instead of guaranteeing coverage for all, it relies on a patchwork system of market-based institutions in which those who are insured sometimes receive coverage as a condition of employment, sometimes purchase individual policies and sometimes obtain coverage through public programs such as Medicaid and the State Children’s Health Insurance Program…