Anatomy Notes Essay example

Submitted By Ella-Forster
Words: 1474
Pages: 6

JOINTS
The place where 2 bones meet is called joint Synovial Joints
1.These are classified according to the shape of the bone ends
2.A joint occurs when 2 bones meet and allow some form of movement
3. Synovial joints are extremely mobile and can withstand the demands of movement necessary for certain sports Ball and Socket Joints ­ Multi axail / Multi rotational Shoulder and hip

Hinge Joint ­Flexion and extension

Bones­ Jumpshot­ Basketball

Basketball Hinge Joints used­ 1.Which bones in the arm are mainly involved in the arm action of the jumpstart
Humerus, Shoulder Blade­ Scapula, Clavicle, Metacarpals, Carpals, Phalanges , Radius, Ulna
2. Which bones in the leg are mainly involved in the jump shot?
Tarsals, Metatarsals, Tibia, Fibula, Femur, Pelvis and Patella
3.Which joints in the body are important in the jumpshot?
Ball and socket joint­ Shoulder and hip
Hinge joint­ Knee and Elbow
4. What is the name of these joints?
Ball and socket joint and hinge joint
5.What is the movement of these joints?
Flexion and Extension

30th April 2015
Muscles
The skeleton cannot stand alone. Bones need to be held together by their own support structure­ the muscles.
Muscles are connective tissue.which are responsible for movement in the body from the slightest wink to running a marathon. Muscles make up about 35­40% of the body’s total weight. How muscles work:
Muscles always work in pairs. Whilst one muscle contracts, the other muscle relaxes.
The muscle that contracts is called the AGONIST.
The muscle that relaxes is called the ANTAGONIST. Example:

In the bicep curl the agonist is the bicep and the antagonist is the tricep.
Curl is the folding up of a joint.
As the arm curls upwards as the arm rotates to the shoulder, decreases the angle at the joint. The joint is a hinge joint at the elbow the bones that move closer together are: radius and the ulna come closer to the humerus.

Muscles and their Movement Pectorals ­ Responsible for flexion, adduction and internal rotation of the shoulder. Rectus Abdominus ­Responsible for flexion and lateral flexion of the trunk Obliques ­ Responsible for flexion and rotation of the trunk. Trapezius ­ Responsible for raising and adducting the scapula . Latissimus Dorsi ­ Responsible for the extension, adduction and rotation of the shoulder Erector Spinae ­ Responsible for the extension of the trunk Deltoids
­ Responsible for flexion,extension, rotation and abduction of the shoulder. Triceps
­ Responsible for extension of the elbow Biceps ­ Responsible for flexion of the elbow Wrist Extensors ­ Cause extension in wrists and fingers Wrist Flexion ­ Cause flexion in wrist and fingers Gluteals ­ Cause extension of hip and rotation and abduction Quadriceps ­ Responsible for flexion of the hip and extension of the knee Hamstrings
­ Responsible for hip extension and knee flexion Gastrocnemius
­ Responsible for flexion of the knee and plantar flexion
Soleus
­ Responsible for plantar flexion Ankle Flexors ­ Cause dorsiflexion Ankle Extensors ­ Cause plantar flexion

Energy Systems and Physiological Responses As 1.2 Name of Energy
System

Explanation/
Detail

Time Frame

Example

Anaerobic (ATP­CP)

Does not use oxygen. Short bursts
High Intensity glucose → lactic

1 to 4 seconds,
Anaerobic, ATP
(in muscles)

100m sprints
Power lifting

acid (+ energy released) 4 to 10 seconds,Anaerobi c, ATP + CP
10 to 45 seconds,Anaerobi c, ATP + CP +
Muscle glycogen
45 to 120 seconds, Anaerobic,
Lactic,Muscle
glycogen
10 secs average

Aerobic

Instead, Aerobic respiration is a chemical process in which energy is released from food substances, such as glucose ­ a sugar. Aerobic respiration needs oxygen to work.
Long period of…