When we observe people we attempt to explain why they behave a certain ways.
Judgements or perceptions are influence by the assumptions we make about a person’s internal state.
An attempt to determine whether an individual’s behaviour is internally or externally caused.
Internally under persons control
Externally behaviour we imagine the situation force the individual to do.
Determination depends on 3 factors
Distinctiveness – different behaviours displayed in different situations
Consensus – everyone facing similar situation responds same way, behaviour shows consensus.
Consistency – does the person respond same way over time, behaviour same over time may be judged as caused by internal factors
Fundamental attribution error - managers tend to understate the influence of external causes and overstate the influence o internal or personal factors. I.e. Manager may attribute employees poor performance to laziness rather than poor product quality or competitors selling it cheaper.
Self-Serving bias – individuals attribute their own successes to internal factors while laying blame for failures on external factors. i.e failure in exam due to not enough time given, not that student didn’t put more effort into study.
Shortcuts in judging others
Selective perception – selectively interpret what one sees on the basis of one’s interests, background, experiences and attitudes.
Halo effect – general impression drawn about an individual on basis of single characteristic
Contrast effects – evaluation of persons character effected by comparing with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on same characteristic
Stereotyping – Judging based on ones perception of the group to which that person belongs.
1. Rational decision making DIADES – model how individuals should behave in order to maximise some outcome.
Define the problem
Identify the decision criteria