Biology Study Guide Essay

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Lecture 4 : Immunity, Circulatory System and Respiratory System.
What are the first, 2nd and third lines of defense? First : External Barriers-Skin(coated with chemicals) and Mucous Membranes. (Line digestive, respiratory, urinary and reproduction tracts)
Second – Phagocytosis, complement,inflammation response – Can limit further infection and attack microbial invaders. .
Third- Lymphocytes, antibodies.

Innate Immune Response – An immune response that does not target specific microbial invaders. Cells are in constant state of readiness to react to any invader. ”First Responders”
Adaptive Immune Response – An immune response that provides protection against specific microbial invaders. Cells come together to attack a specific invader.
Process of Inflammation – 1. Injured tissue cells release Histamine which causes capillaries to dilate and increase blood flow. 2. Dendritic cells phagotycize pathogens…stimulate the inflammatory response. 3. Blood clotting walls and presents blood loss.
Cells/Proteins of Non Specific Immune System- Granulocytes, Agranulocytes, Dendritic Cells, NK Cell… Natural killer cells which kills cells that are infected. Proteins – Interferons, Antiviral and Anticancer
Complement – Protein which forms the membrane attack complex.
Specific(Acquired) Immunity- Recognizes specific molecules. T Cells, B Cells, Stronger and faster response to invaders.
T Cells(Thymus) – Produced in bone marrow, mature in thymus. Cell immunity –goes after virus and cancer cells. Cytoxic t cells – Destroy non self cells. Helper t cells- control immune response. HIV target.
Helper T Cells, are a target of HIV
Antigen presenting Cells – Any immune system cell that presents, on its surface, fragments of an antigen that it has ingested. Example – Dendritic cells.
Antigen- Any foreign substance that illicits an immune system response.

Formed Components of Blood - Red Blood Cells (erythrocytes) – Transport Oxygen bound to hemoglobin. White Blood Cells – (Leukocytes) – Fight infections and cancer. Platelets(thrombocytes)
Liquid components of blood – Plasma. 90% water. Plasma contains, ions, proteins,wastes, gases, hormones.
Blood Vessels…… Arteries : A blood vessel that carries blood AWAY from the heart.
Arterioles-
Capilaries – small blood vessel, connects the arteries and veins.
Venules-
Veins – Blood vessel that CARRIES blood TOWARD the heart.
4 chambered heart – right side pumps blood from body to lungs. Left side pumps blood from lungs to body.
Systemic Circulation –
Pulmonary Circulation –
Heart Attack – a complete blockage of coronary arteries prevents blood supply to the heart.
Steps leading to heart attack….
Gas Exchange-
Ventilation – Breathing is the alternate inhale/exhale of air.
Cellular Respiration – Occurs in the body’s cells. Glucose+oxygen = ATP + carbon dioxide
Steps involved in inhalation and exhalation - Inhale – rib…