DNA STRUCTURE/DNA REPLICATION
6-Watson and Crick: Used Franklin’s and Chargaff’s info to make the first ever accurate DNA model
1-DNA is double helix and is built from nucleotides which consist of a phosphate, a base, and a sugar. The bases include G,C,A,T which are connected by hydrogen bonds. DNA polymerase is also located behind the DNA where bases connect to each other.
4/8-A=T and G=C only these combinations can form hydrogen bonds.
4-A nucleotide consists of a base, a phosphate, and a sugar
7-DNA is coded by a list of various bases EX: ATG GTC AAG CTA GCG ATC
3/5-Transcription:Since DNA can’t leave the nucleus, a copy is made of each gene and is called mRNA.
1: Genes in DNA are marked by special base codes
2: Nucleotides use complementary base pairing to attach themselves to bases and make one new RNA strand
3: RNA polymerase connects the 2 new nucleotides with covalent bonds
4: The DNA code switches around to mRNA code EX: A=U G=C
5: Finally the mRNA diffuses out of the nucleus through a nuclear pore to the cytoplasm.
Translation: This is the finally step in creating proteins.
1: mRNA travels to the ribosome in the cell
2: The ribosome incloses 2 separate codons
3: tRNA (Anticodons) read the mRNA and attach to it
4: tRNA carries amino acids to the ribosome based on base pairing and forms proteins
2-Substitution, deletion, insertion, duplication, and nonsense are all mutations and can cause permanent