Essay on Biology Study Guide

Submitted By bonitaa123
Words: 523
Pages: 3

Study Guide – DNA Name: _______________________
Chapters 8 & 9 Date: ______________ Pd: ____

1. Draw a picture of a nucleotide. Label the phosphate, the deoxyribose sugar, and the nitrogen base. Which parts make up the backbone?

2. Compare and Contrast DNA and RNA:

| DNA |RNA |
|a. contains the sugar deoxyribose | |
|b. |has the bases A,C,G, and U |
|c. typically double-stranded | |

3. Matching: Match the scientist(s) to the appropriate discovery about DNA.

_____ DNA always has equal amounts of A-T and C-G. a. Watson and Crick
_____ Created first 3-D DNA model out of metal and wood. b. Chargoff
_____ The bonds that link amino acids together. c. Hydrogen bond
_____ The bonds that hold the bases together. f. Peptide bond

4. True or False:

_____ a. In a DNA molecule, the nitrogen base adenine always pairs with the nitrogen base guanine.
_____ d. The smallest unit or monomer of DNA is a phosphate.
_____ e. The backbone of DNA is composed of a phosphate and a deoxyribose sugar.
_____ f. DNA stands for ribonucleic acid
_____ g. DNA is a double helix.

5. Write the complementary base pairs that would complete the DNA strand below.


6. Transcribe the DNA molecule into an RNA molecule.


7. Translate the RNA molecule into the appropriate amino acid sequence (use your chart!).

8. Use the words in the following list to fill in the blanks.

DNA polymerase RNA polymerase replication transcription nucleotide messenger RNA ribosomal RNA transfer RNA central dogma translation codon anticodon

a. When DNA is copied during interphase, this process is known as ___________.

b. The enzyme that joins the nucleotides during replication and proofreads is _____________________.

c. DNA to RNA to proteins is known as the ________________________ of molecular biology.

d. _______________ is the type of RNA that carries the genetic code to the ribosome to make proteins.

e. _______________ is the process of copying a sequence of DNA to produce an RNA strand.

f. _________________ brings amino acids from the cytoplasm to a ribosome to help make a protein.

g. The process that decodes a mRNA strand into a polypeptide (then to a protein) is ________________.

h. A ________ is a 3-nucleotide sequence that codes for an amino acid. An __________ is a set of 3-nucleotides that is complementary to an mRNA codon.

9. A mutation is a change in an organisms DNA. Below is a string of nucleotides. (1) Use brackets to indicate the reading frame of the nucleotide sequence. (2) Copy the nucleotide sequence into the first box…