Outline for each class is on WebCT and if you can answer the questions on that outline you will be fine for the exam
Fundamental Values of the Canadian Democracy * Based on Liberalist ideology * Classical vs reform vs neo liberalism
What distinguishes one form of liberalism from another? * All forms share a set of values * Freedom, justice, equality etc * But there is disagreement amongst liberals about what these terms actually mean and how to go about achieving them.
What is an Ideology? * Specific kind of theory with three basic characteristics * Incorporates a statement of ideal political values * Sets out the means by which those values and goals will be realized – how to put the vision of an ideal society in practice – a roadmap. * Ideology seeks to mobilize political action around its stated values and goals. * Normative blue prints about what the good society looks like * Marxism, feminism, socialism and liberalism are all ideologies.
What is the difference between a democracy and a liberal democracy? * What does the concept of democracy entail? Ruled by the people, consent of the governed, self-government, self rule. * In Canada is achieved through representative government. * Important to distinguish between a democracy and a liberal democracy because what you can do in those two different democracies are very different. * Regular democracy requires 51 percent of the votes in a voting situation. * Presents a problem called the tyranny of the majority – liberalism tempers this problem in democratic theory * In Canada, individuals and groups have rights and there is a concern in liberal democracy about the tyranny of the majority and the oppression of the minority.
Fundamental values of liberalism and of the Canadian Political System * Freedom * Overriding value of liberalism is freedom of the individual * Why? Because human beings are unique to other beings because we possess the capacity for reason, logic and rationality. * Gives us the ability to critically reflect and evaluate options about how we want to live our lives – to determine their own conception of a valuable life. * For liberals this is what makes human beings distinguishable. * The freedom of the individual must be protected, respected and our capacity to reflect and evaluate should be given room to flourish. * In liberal theory this process of rationally assessing our life goals and putting them into action is called self- actualization. * How do we create this freedom for individuals to achieve self-actualization – this is where liberals disagree. * Equality * Justice
What is Classical Liberalism and what are its Guiding Principles? * Classical Liberalism’s form of Freedom * Conceived of in negative terms * The freedom to be left alone – non interference, absence of coercion “freedom from” as opposed to “freedom to” * The individual has to be given the widest possible scope of non interference * Less interference, more freedom * More interference, less freedom * Classical Liberals form of State * Non interference from the government – the state is a necessary evil * We must have a state in order to protect freedom and ensure non-interference between citizens. * In order to do this, the state makes laws and is backed up by police and army – ability to interfere in peoples lives. * For classical liberals, the state is a high risk because of its potential ability to interfere and who will prevent the state from interfering? * Their answer comes in terms of the Limited State * The state and state interference has to be constrained. * The smallest state possible that regulates as