According to Hampson (2012) research “Hacktivism: A New Breed of Protest in A Networked World”, the term hacktivism is define as the nonviolent use for political ends of illegal or legally ambiguous digital tools like web site defacements, information theft, web site parodies, DoS (Disk operating System) attacks, virtual sit ins, and virtual sabotage. Capitalizing on the power and pervasiveness of the Internet, Hacktivists attempt to exploit its manifold access points to gain and spread information about their views.
Hampson (2012) explains that hacktivism has its origins in both hacking and activism, distinguishing between hacktivism and hacking is not straight forward in the sense, the two practices have divergent motives, hacking is often done out of the hacker’s self-interest, while hacktivism is often done to achieve a social or political goal. The hacking has not always been used to describe the conduct of a cybercriminal but was originally described an innovative use of technology to solve a problem.
Then, the author, Denning, expressed in chapter eight (pp251-252) of the “Activism, Hacktivism, and cyber terrorism: The Internet as a Tool for Influencing foreign Policy” that the Internet is used extensively as a publication medium by hackers (including hacktivists) and terrorists. Hackers publish electronic magazines and put up web sites with software tools and information about hacking, including details about vulnerabilities in popular systems for example, Microsoft, and how they can be exploited. These details about vulnerabilities in popular systems include programs for cracking passwords, software packages for writing computer viruses, and scripts for disabling or breaking into computer networks and web sites. In March 1997, an article in The New York Times reported that there were an estimated 1,900 websites gossiping about hacking tips and tools, and hacker publications.
“A Survey on awareness of cybercrime related issues with reference to citizens of Baramati Region” by Mahadeo. D, Shivaji. W, Shivaji. T, & Bhimrao. Z (2013) states that “cybercrime is known as Internet crimes or computer crimes that uses a computer either as an instrument, target or a means for perpetuating further crimes or offences or contraventions under any law. These offences include not only the use of computers but the internet. Major Cybercrimes are denial of services, defacement of web sites, spam, computer virus and worms, child pornography, cybersquatting, cyber stalking, phishing, hacking, and email fraud. Computer crime mostly consists of unauthorized access to computer systems data alteration, data destruction, theft of intellectual property. Cybercrime in the context of national security may involve hacktivism, traditional espionage, or information warfare and related activities.
CULT OF THE DEAD COW (cDc)
The CULT OF THE DEAD COW (cDc) is the most-accomplished and longest-running group in the computer underground in Lubbock, Texas. cDc stated in their website that their organization was founded in 1984 and widely considered to be the most elite people to ever walk the face of the earth. The cDc is a leading developer of Internet privacy and security tools, which are all free to the public. In addition, the cDc created the first electronic publication, which is still going strong.
Samuel (2004) indicated that people who easily fall into “hacktivism” are exceptionally intelligent and a dedicated bunch. The cDc website states that the members of their grand imperial dynasty include a former Presidential Advisor on computer security, a Harvard researcher, a former U.N. official, an assistant