Final Exam Prep Essay

Submitted By shannaabananaa
Words: 2056
Pages: 9

5.
List who synthesized amphetamines -A German pharmacologist, L. Edeleano, in 1887 -It wasn’t tested in lab animals until 1910
Discuss how amphetamines work -Amphetamines are synthetic chemicals that are similar to natural neurotransmitters. -They increase the release and block the metabolism of catecholamine substances both in the brain and in the nervous system -cause the fight or flight response
Behavioral stereotypy: meaningless repetition of a single activity
List the 3 medical uses for amphetamines -narcolepsy -ADHD -short-term weight loss
Discuss the 3 cocaine eras First cocaine era: -dates back to 2500 B.C. -used by the South American Indians, in the Andean mountains of Peru -it is believed that the stimulant properties of cocaine played a major role I the advancement of the isolated civilization, giving the people energy and motivation. -The Erythroxylon coca shrub was held in religious reverence until the time of the Spanish conquistadors -There are no indications that the Andeans had any problems with cocaine Second cocaine era: -19th century -this time was spent finding the pharmacology of cocaine and identifying its dangerous effects -the threat of cocaine to society was first recognized -Angelo Mariani removed the active ingredient from the coca leaf, purified it and it was added to cough drops and a wine. Coca-cola was made but by 1906 it no longer contained cocaine, instead it contained caffiene. -It was used as a cure for many different things including drug addiction, however side effects and abuse became evident -In 1914 the Harrison Act cocaine and coca were classified as narcotics and uncontrolled use was outlawed. Cocaine abuse problems remained of minor concern until the 1980’s Third cocaine era: -1980’s -many people, including the medical community, were misinformed about cocaine, it was viewed as a glamorous drug, the drug of celebrities -the price of cocaine decreased dramatically because of the demand.
Discuss the 3 phases of cocaine abstinence 1. Crash - hours since last binge: 24-48 -Initial Features: agitation, depression, anorexia, suicidal thoughts -Middle Features: fatigue, no craving, insomnia -Late Features: extreme fatigue, no craving, exhaustion 2. Withdrawal -hours since last binge: 1-10 weeks -Initial Features: mood swings, sleep returns, some craving, little anxiety -Middle and Late Features: anhedonia, anxiety, intense craving, obsessed with drug seeking 3. Extinction -hours since last binge: indefinite -Features: normal pleasure but anhedonia can last 1.5-2 years, mood swings, occasional craving, cues trigger craving
Discuss the major pharmacological effects of cocaine -most of the pharmacological effects stem from enhanced activity of dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline and serotonin transmitters. -the drug blocks the reuptake and inactivation of these substances following their release from neurons -causes CNS stimulation -the increase of noradrenaline activity following cocaine administration increases the effects of the sympathetic nervous system and alters cardiovascular activity

Discuss the effects of the 3 minor stimulants—Xanthines, Theophylline and Theobromine -100-200 mg: enhances alertness, arousal, diminishes fatigue, facilitate mental activity (does not improve learning ability), relief of minor headaches -300 mg: insomnia, increase tension, anxiety, and muscle twitches -500 mg: panic sensations, chills, nausea, clumsiness -5-10 g: seizures, respiratory failure and death
Among the xanthines, theophylline has the greatest effect on the respiratory system. It causes air passages to open and facilitate breathing
Discuss how powdered cocaine is made from the coca leaf -comes from the leaves of Erythroxylon coca. -The leaves are harvested 2-4 times a year and used to produce coca paste (can…