Selective Retention (beginning at bottom page 27 of the lecture outline.)
Why didn’t smokers tend to recall negative messages about the effects of smoking?
Because of selective retention – only remember some messages & forget others.
What are the key elements of the 3 learning processes (types of learning) discussed in class?
Cognitive Learning (thinking)
Insights & attitude
Contiguity Learning – Classical Conditioning
Unconditioned stimulus –meat
Unconditioned response – hunger
Conditioned stimulus – bell
Conditioned respond – hunger
Reinforcement Learning (Operant conditioning)
Reinforcement or punishment
How can you determine which learning approach is used for a particular marketing communication (advertisement)?
Cognitive Learning – Persuasion
Contiguity Learning (Classical Conditioning) – Environment [Ex: Mt. Dew, classical music, Gap, Healthy Choice dinners, “Mc”Donalds]
Reinforcement Learning – Product; features, functions, benefits [Ex. Iced Tea, Weight Watchers, Magazines, Biggby]
Can you dissect an ad (or create an ad) that contains an unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus and conditioned response?
What is the difference between reinforcement and punishment?
Negative reinforcement gets people to do it again, punishment gets them to stop.
What are several categories of reinforcements?
Reinforcing antic & choice time
How does drive reduction work as a reinforcement?
Satisfy a need or want. (Need water, drink water to take away thirst, do every time.)
What does prepotent response mean?
The greatest response. Greater than others in power & influence.
Give examples of negative reinforcements.
Is it better if your customers have habit or cognitive loyalty and why?
Cognitive: want ppl to know what they liked.
What type of consumer purchases tends to involve cognitive learning – high or low involvement?
What are elements of cognitive learning and is it more applicable to classroom learning or consumer behavior?
What are consumer attitudes and why are they important to marketing executives?
State of readiness with cognitive, emotional, & behavioral components, which reflects the beliefs of the consumer with regard to messages, brands, products, product characteristics, or other aspects of life.
Important because marketers use their knowledge of consumer attitudes to make sure that strategies are consistent with consumer tastes & preferences.
In what ways do marketers influence consumer attitudes?
Add choice criteria (attributes)
Changing Importance (Affective) [Ex: Beef]
Changing Cognitions/Beliefs [Ex. Promotion - Callaway Golf “a better game by design”]
Changing Behavior [Ex. Chicken egg, coupons, free samples]
Are attitudes learned?
They can be. They are organized through experience.
Do you seek facts or beliefs?
We are belief-seeking organisms
What are the components of attitudes and how would you describe them to a business associate?
Affective (Feelings): Emotional feeling whether you like or dislike the product.
Cognitive (Thoughts): Knowledge about a products attributes not influences by emotion. What you think and believe.
Behavioral (Intentions): Tendency to act positively or negatively. Buy or not buy.
Describe how you evaluate 2 autos, by giving choice criteria, affect regarding criteria and beliefs about each brand.
List criteria that is important in an auto, choose which you like better based on your feelings, rate each attribute using your beliefs & cognitive thinking.
Next describe 4 ways a marketer might alter components of your attitude to change your purchase preference.
How does involvement influence attitudes and behaviors?