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ITE 5.0
Chapter 5
Operating Systems

5.0 Operating Systems
5.0.1 Introduction
5.0.1.1 Introduction

What controls almost all functions on a computer?

The operating system

What operating systems will be discussed in this chapter?

Windows 7, Windows Vista, and Windows XP
5.1 Modern Operating Systems
5.1.1 OS Terms and Characteristics
5.1.1.1 Terms

What is meant by multi-user?
Two or more users have individual accounts that allow them to work with programs and peripheral devices at the same time.



Multi-tasking
The computer is capable of operating multiple applications at the same time.



What is multi-processing?
The operating system can support two or more CPUs.


What is multi-threading?
A program can be broken into smaller parts that are loaded as needed by the operating system.


What two things does an operating system provide to the user?

applications, and hardware

5.1.1.2 Basic Functions of an Operating System

What are the roles of an operating system?
Control hardware access, Manage files and folders, Provide a user interface, Manage applications

What is a device driver?
To access and communicate with each hardware component, the OS uses a program called a device driver.

What is the function of PnP?
Assigning system resources and installing drivers are performed with a plug-and-play (PnP) process.

What is contained in the registry?
contains all the information about the computer.

What is a file?
A file is a block of related data that is given a single name and treated as a single unit

What is the difference between a directory and a subdirectory?

Directories can be kept inside other directories. These nested directories are referred to as subdirectories.

What are directories and sub-directories called in the Window OS?

Directories are called folders in Windows operating systems, and subdirectories are called subfolders.

What does the OS enable a user to do?
The OS enables the user to interact with the software and hardware.

What are the two types of user interfaces?

Command-line interface (CLI), Graphical user interface (GUI)

What is an application?
Applications are software programs, such as word processors, databases, spreadsheets, and games

What is API (Application Programming Interface)?
An API allows programs to access the resources managed by the operating system in a consistent and reliable manner

What are four examples of API’s?
Open Graphics Library (OpenGL), DirectX, Windows API, Java APIs
5.1.1.3 Processor Architecture

What are the two common architectures use in Windows OS?
x86, x64


What are registers?
Registers are storage areas used by the CPU when performing calculations

What bit architecture can x86 support?
32-bit

What is the benefit of 64 bit architecture?
Adds additional registers specifically for instructions that use a 64-bit address space. The additional registers allow the CPU to process instructions much faster than x86.

What are the memory capabilities of the 32 bit and 64 bit CPU architectures?

A 32-bit OS is capable of addressing only 4 GB of system memory, while a 64-bit OS can address more than 128 GB.
5.1.2 Types of Operating Systems
5.1.2.1 Desktop Operating Systems

What are the two distinct types of Operating Systems?
desktop and network


What are the characteristics of a desktop OS?
1. Shares files and folders on a small network with limited security
2. Runs single user applications
3. Supports a single user


In the current software market what are the three most common operating systems?
Microsoft Windows, Apple Mac OS, and Linux.

Which of the three common Operating Systems is open source?
Windows 7
5.1.2.2 Network Operating Systems

Who developed Linux?
Linus Torvalds

What is meant by open source?
Open-source programs allow the source code to be distributed and changed by anyone as a free download or by developers at a much