This paper was done with the objective to give some explanation about motivation and how it can influences people's behavior. We know that people have different interests and each one has a particular view about all the things that she/he interacts with. The motivation theories try to explain what that view is and how they interact in different ways such as work, studies, and relationships in the human life. Compiling some studies about the topic, this paper shows two different theories, also it shows some common points between both theories, and in addition some practical examples are given.
Needs Theory According to Maslow, the motivation's theory is first shown by two main points that he calls the Physiological Needs. It expresses the idea of the human's body needs to survive and the natural response for the lack of resources that the body needs to keep in good state. The first point was developed by Cannon and it is called Homeostasis. It shows the body's necessities through an experiment that analyze chemical variations in the body such as water content, sugar content, fat content, and other chemicals. The second point studied by Young shows the reaction of the human in encountering lack of food and the tendency to develop specific food desires and hunger increase (quoted in Maslow). Maslow also explained that these needs for food sometimes can not be directly related just because of hunger, but it can be inferred from some lacking of other needs such as comfort or dependence. In addition, it can also be satisfied by other sources like smoking cigarettes and not only by eating food. Succeeding in the physiological needs, safety needs are the subsequent subject that have relation with all that are involved with our safeness feelings such as security, stability, protection, and anxiety. When most of the physiological needs are already satisfied, the safety needs takes place and turn it in a new goal. In addition, not necessarily following a sequence, Maslow talks about many kinds of human's needs such as, the belongingness and love needs, esteem needs, and the self-actualization needs. All of these needs reflect the stimulus of a human's motivation to active their goals, like the example cited above, food is one of the principal human needs. In consequence, it turns to be a higher motivator when the body is sick of this. In addition, the gratification came as a result of that process, when you have needs and then you satisfy them, you have the feeling of pleasure to be done with something that you had sickness from. Needs represent an internal energy force that directs behavior actions that permit the satisfaction and release of the need itself. For example, satiation. This is what makes us to do whatever we do. Needs can be primary directly related to our biological nature; for example, the need for food, or they can be secondary, related to our personality (Stell). Bostan says that for motivation, achieving a goal is influenced by both personal and situational factors. Personal factors are a person’s needs, motives, and goals, and situational factors are opportunities and possible incentives provided by the environment. Needs represent states of disequilibrium which means lack of something in an organism that orients the organism towards certain goals that will reduce the needs. According to Murray, needs are a major source of human motivation, this arises from the person's environment interactions. The goals continue to satisfy the needs that determine human motivation. He defines two sets of needs: viscerogenic and psychogenic. Viscerogenic needs are physiological in nature and are characterized by periodic body changes such as the need for water, food, urination, etc. Psychogenic needs are psychological in nature, concerned with a person’s mental and emotional states. Two important factors that affect needs are strength…