A band class
Homework # 3
1. Distinguish between weather and climate? Climate is the general trends of weather and environment for a location.Weather is the kind of weather happening now.
2. How do ocean currents influence climate? Give an example of an ocean current. - Ocean currents help distribute the solar energy on Earth. Any current in either a liquid or a gas that is kept in motion by the force of gravity acting on small differences in density. A density difference can exist between two fluids or between different parts of the same fluid. Density currents flow along ocean and lake bottoms, because the water entering is colder, saltier, or contains more suspended sediment and thus is denser than the surrounding water. Density currents are a factor in water pollution, as the industrial discharge of large amounts of polluted or heated water can generate density currents that affect neighboring human or animal communities.
3. Describe 2 ways in which mountains affect the climate. - The temperature on mountains becomes colder the higher the altitude gets. Overall, mountains tend to have much wetter climates than the surrounding flat land.Mountain weather conditions can change dramatically from one hour to the next. For example, in just a few minutes a thunder storm can roll in when the sky was perfectly clear, and in just a few hours the temperatures can drop from extremely hot temperatures to temperatures that are below freezing.Winds carry moist air over the land. When this moist air or winds reach the mountain, it rises because the mountains are in the way. As the air rises, it cools, and since cool air can carry less moisture than warm air, there is usually precipitation or rain.Generally the climate on mountains become progressively colder with increased altitude. This occurs because as altitude increases, air becomes thinner and is less able to absorb and retain heat. The cooler the temperature, the less evaporation there is, meaning that there is more moisture in the air.Mountains can affect the climate of nearby lands. In some areas, mountains block rain, so that one side of a mountain range may be rainy and the other side may be a desert.Much of airborne moisture falls as rain on the windward side of mountains. This often means that the land on the other side of the mountain, the leeward side gets far less rain—an effect called a "rain shadow"—which often produces a desert.The higher the mountain, the more pronounced the rain shadow effect is and the less likely rain will fall on the leeward side. .There is now little doubt that the presence of mountain ranges on the Earth can dramatically influence global climate. Most airflow in the Earth's atmosphere is orientated along east-west trends, on account of the Earth's rotation and Coriolis force. Consequently, north-south orientated mountain ranges have the ability to influence the general circulation.
4. Why does the earth have seasons?
- Contrary to popular belief, the Earth’s seasons are not caused by the varying distance from the sun. They occur because of the tilt of our planet’s axis (23.5 degrees) in relation to the plane of the sun. As the Earth orbits the sun, our planet’s tilt causes the intensity of sunlight to change over parts of the Earth at different times. The following describes the seasons in terms of the Northern Hemisphere:Summer—When the geographic North Pole is tilted toward the sun, it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere. During this time, the North Pole receives 24 hours of daylight, while the South Pole experiences total darkness. On the Northern Hemisphere’s first day of summer—or the summer solstice—the sun’s direct rays are shining at 23.5 degrees north latitude, also known as the Tropic of Cancer. This occurs on June 21 or 22, a day that contains the most daylight hours.Fall or Autumn—The first day of autumn in the Northern Hemisphere occurs on