Public Order Policing

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De Lint, W. (2005). Public order policing: A tough act to follow? International Journal of the Sociology of Law, 33(4), 179-199. De Lint argues that Canada has developed a hybrid police form in which control and service are practiced simultaneously in morphing of intelligence-led and community policing orientation. Historically, there has been a low tolerance for public disorder and strong public support for government use of coercion in the maintenance of public civility even at the expense of civil liberties. He further demonstrates that the 1990 approach of law enforcement, which was primarily community policing, has increasingly deteriorated, causing police departments to imitate and impersonate soldiers and miniature armies. De Lint frames and analyzes the research topic by using an applied approach, which particularly covers a handful of conceptual tools which are needed to evaluate public order policing in Canada. Additionally, it discusses the implications of militarized policing and violence on civilians, and on police officers. Furthermore, it provides a historical analysis of community style policing, and how its impact has decreased in a more modern and diverse nation. Finally, the conclusions made in this article are important in that they outline what specific parts of the police force needs to be highlighted and analyzed in order to reduce the harm done to the public and increase civilian faith in police departments.

Sozer, M. (n.d.). Crime and Community Policing (Criminal justice (LFB Scholarly Publishing

LLC)). El Paso: LFB Scholarly Pub. LLC.

There are a number of innovative policing strategies aimed at improving police

performance, such as “community policing”, “broken-windows theory”, “hot spots policing” and

“third-party policing”. The author argues that community policing, has not found to be effective

in preventing crime, if it does not have a clear focus on a specific problem. It is further

demonstrated that police can do little to control crime: this view offers some support to

criminological theories which contend that other factors generate crime and overshadow the role

of police in dealing with crime. Traditional policing, can also, do little about the root causes of

crime such as poverty, unemployment, child rearing, family structure and gun & drug policies.

Sozer discusses and examines specific problems that have identified by both the

community policing and militarized policing approaches in the last century. He focuses on the

idea that community policing stresses that police can prevent crime while enhancing their

relationships with the communities they serve, which is not being done. He further suggests that

police departments, as single agencies, cannot respond to all problems related to crime as the

term “crime” encompasses a variety of causes, factors and correlations.

Leighton, Barry N. (1991). Visions of community policing: Rhetoric and reality in Canada.

(Police and Society in Canada). Canadian Journal of Criminology, 33(3 4), 485-522.

Leighton presents a solid definition and description of community policing, focusing on

the four primary components to various visions of community policing: police-community

reciprocity, areal decentralization of command, reorientation of patrol and civilization. He

demonstrates that today's approach to policing focuses primarily on enforcing criminal law,

solving crime and apprehending criminals. The performance of Canadian police services, starting

in the 1990s, using the community policing approach is difficult to assess because there are

few evaluations of community policing, most forces have implemented only a few, if any, tactics…