Essay about References: Citation and Text

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Referencing – Harvard Method. Library Guide

This is only a general guide. You must refer to the specific guidelines provided by your School / module leader. There may be differences between the general guidelines below and the style used to mark your work. Reference Lists and Bibliographies– Basics A reference list contains the details of all of the books, journal articles, videos, websites etc. that you have cited (referred to) in your piece of work. A bibliography is sometimes required in addition to a reference list. A bibliography is a list giving the details of all items (published and unpublished) read in the course of producing the work. This includes items you do not directly cite (refer to) in your work. Reference lists/bibliographies should:  Acknowledge the sources which have been used –avoiding plagiarism.  Enable other readers to easily find the books, journals etc.  Always be presented in alphabetical order of author‟s surnames.  Created using the details of books/journals provided on the main title page inside, not the front cover.  Offer a style of presentation that is consistent throughout. Citing References In Text – General Rules  The Harvard method requires the surname of the author(s) or editor(s) and the year of publication to be cited in the text.  The surname(s) (not initials) should be followed by the year.  Page numbers are included only when using a direct quotation or using ideas from a specific page.  If the name of the author is used naturally in a sentence, then only the year (and page number if required) will appear in brackets. The following examples demonstrate the general rules for citing sources within text. One author. Examples showing the layout when the name of the author occurs naturally in a sentence and when it does not. In a recent article Turner (2010), argued the most important factor is… „Information overload‟ is creeping into all aspects of life (Turner, 2010, p.213). One author, multiple items. If an author has two or more publications in the same year, use lower case letters to denote different items. https://studentportal.napier.ac.uk/Library http://staff.napier.ac.uk/Services/Library/

Lyon (1997a) contends that access to information is not being dispersed to all Internet users, and that the power is concentrated in the hands of experts and corporations. This can be demonstrated through the increasing use of electronic surveillance (Lyon, 1997b). Multiple authors. If the source is written by two or three authors, you must include all surnames in the text. Gackenbach, Ellerman and Taylor (1998) demonstrated that the human brain is able to combat information overload in several ways. For more than three use the first author‟s name followed by et al. N.B. et al. should be italicised and followed by a full stop. The names of all authors must be written in full in the reference list/bibliography, even when et al. has been used in the reference in the text. One of the worries most people have about the information highway is that they are unable to cope with information overload (Erman et al. 1997). Multiple sources are cited alphabetically, not by date, and are separated by a semi-colon. The Internet has increased the existing fear of information overload felt by many people (Gackenbach, Ellerman and Taylor, 1998; Wurman, 1989). Organisation as author. For a work produced by a corporate body/government institution with no obvious individual author, use the name of the organisation as you would use the name of an author. The government believes that broadband access across the U.K is important for social and economic reasons (DTI, 2001). No author. When there is no author listed use the title. A recent report on the subject (Information and Society, 2007) indicated… Quotations. When quoting directly from a source, use quotation marks and a sequence of three dots to mark any omissions. The quote should be referenced, indicating the page(s). The following are general…