Chapter 3. Cognition and Intrapersonal Communication
1. What are behavioral theories? Why were early theories in the social sciences (psychology) behavioral theories?
-earliest theories want to be scientific with observable cause and effects
-Believed that SR
-feel they can be respected by natural sciences b/c using quantifiable cause/effects
2. Describe the three steps of the Classical Conditioning Model (Pavlov). Provide a communication example. Show how the three steps of the model apply to your example.
2. US + CS------------------------------->UR
-a person who elicits with a positive response with a stimulus and pair it with a product, the response given by the person will be transferred to the product.
3. Describe the essential aspects of the Operant Conditioning Model (Skinner). Provide example
-Classical: focuses on how stimulusresponse
-Operant: increase/decrease the effect based on reward/consequences; not concerned with the original effect
-Both are behavior theories; the ones in chapter are cognitive that deals with psychology factors
Ex: when baby cries, mom comes. When baby cries, mom doesn’t come.
4. Describe why cognitive theories developed from behavioral theories. What are the steps leading to the acceptance of cognitive theories?
-Why it developed: behavior studies showed that different people can elicit different responses when stimulus is the same: SOR
-Show why people who are different in cognitive characteristics result in different behaviors
Steps: 1. VARIABLE such as attitude is hypothesized to exist 2. SCALE measure a person’s attitude toward attitude object 3. Identify participants (Ss) with opposite attitudes toward the attitude object 4. If Ss with different attitude exhibit different behaviors toward attitude object, hypothesis is valid.
5. Message Design Logics Theory (O’Keefe). What is a MDL? Name and describe the three types of MDLs.
-MDL: conception of communication that influences the kind of messages people construct with different personalities
-expressive: self-expression, sender focused, little focus on context
-conventional: cares about the situation, negotiate, focuses on what’s “right”
-rhetorical: self-serving, strategic, adaptive and responsive
6. Rhetorical Sensitivity Theory (Hart). Name and describe the three types of speakers.
-noble self, rhetorically sensitive communicator(adapts while having integrity), rhetorical reflector(adapts too much)
7. Communication Accommodation Theory (Giles). Describe accommodation, convergence and divergence. Who accommodates to whom? What are the effects of convergence? What are the effects of divergence?
-accommodation describes how we adapt to others during communication
Differences in accommodation reflect the importance of status, authority, and cultural and social identity.
-convergence: you and the other person become alike, display similar personality traits or communication styles
-accommodation: the dominant style
-Consequences of convergence: positive; like ppl similar to us and want to listen -sometimes negative: change of accent to accommodate
-Consequences of divergence: negative
8. Uncertainty Reduction Theory (Berger).
-Definition: Seek to explain/predict when, why, and how people use communication to decrease doubts in interaction
-Assumptions: 1. Communication seeks to decrease uncertainty dealing with people b/c we are more comfortable with that person 2. Uncertainty is psychologically unpleasant 3. Communication is the major means of reducing uncertainty
-Antecedent conditions that leads to wanting to reduce uncertainty: 1. Anticipation of future interaction 2. Incentive value: reduce uncertainty of s/b who has ability to reward 3. Deviance: reduce uncertainty of s/b who bizarre and odd
-Types of uncertainty: behavior/cognitive