Essay on Task 1

Submitted By Mfranks87
Words: 874
Pages: 4

Task 1: Geography and the Development/Diffusion of Human Societies
Miranda Franks
Part A:
The area of Mesopotamia, from the Greek translating to “land between the rivers” required settlers to form their homeostasis if they were going to stay in this area permanently (Britannica, E.P., 1). This region composed of land between the Tigris and the Euphrates was dehydrated and depleted. In order to sustain life, the soil would have to be richer for crop growth. This was established by constructing irrigation systems, digging channels and canals. “The need for cooperation on these large irrigation projects led to the growth of government and law” (Britannica, E.P., 2). Only the basic forms of transportation and communication were available at this time since it was in the beginning stages of development, this made for a city that was easily ruled. These civilizations were city-based and labeled as city-states, lead by leaders called ensis, who were believed to manage the irrigation system (Britannica, E.P., 20).
Part B:
The origin of chariots was from around Eurasia, primarily as a military weapon but also for hunting and sporting events. The transmission was spread from Syria in 1800 BCE to the Hittites in 1700 BCE and was used to help establish their first kingdom. The Kassites also drove chariots from Iran and took Babylonia to be established by themselves. Chariots were also utilized for the foundation of Hinduism and influence on local culture by Aryan charioteers migrating to Iran, Pakistan and India. The replication of the chariot was around 500 BCE, when horseback riding was established and the chariot seemed unnecessary with the expanded use of iron in soldiers. The use of the chariot weakened, as the horse was now more of a military advantage and no longer viewed as a resource of food (Plubins, 2013).
Part C:
The development of the United States was directly influenced by two physical-geographic factors. The first factor being the California gold rush that began in 1848. People from all different areas of the world came to California to become gold seekers, such as France, China and Mexico. Towns were established around these gold miners and were given names based on certain people, or miners would name the town based on the terrain and how hard of a mining area it was. Entertainers would travel to these towns to make money. California’s population grew by over 180,000 people once the gold was discovered and the word was spread. Miners eventually wanted more than the tents or makeshift living conditions they were in and wanted to build homes, which would mean using the trees for lumber, leaving some areas sparse. Also, to reach gold that was deep in the rivers, miners invented Hydraulic mining which was changing the land conditions and was eventually banned. California today is very diverse and largely populated and without the gold rush it may not have developed into the state it is today (California Historical Society, 2001).
The second factor is the Potato Famine that began in Ireland around the same time as the California Gold Rush. Potatoes were the main food source in Ireland at the time in a country that was already considered at a poverty state with terrible living conditions and widespread disease. Ireland began having troubles with growing their potatoes and the ones that were grown would rot very quickly, however desperate from starvation people would still eat these. The government