The Cold War is a major part of not only US and Russian history, but it had an effect on many parts of Europe and North America. The Cold War was a long period of tension between the democracies of the Western World and the communist countries of Eastern Europe. The west was led by the United States and Eastern Europe was led by the Soviet Union. These two countries became known as superpowers. Although the two superpowers never officially declared war on each other, they fought indirectly in proxy wars, the arms race, and the space race. In 1945, the United States and Soviet Union were allies, jointly triumphant in World War II, which ended with total victory for Soviet and American forces over Adolf Hitler's Nazi empire in Europe. Despite the common victory, there were disagreements between the former allies. The USSR, formed in 1922 by Vladimir Lenin, had a Communist government. Communism is a type of government and philosophy. Its goal is to form a society where everything is shared equally. All people are treated equally and there is little private ownership. In a communist government, the government owns and controls most everything including property, means of production, education, transportation, and agriculture. During the Cold War the United States and the Soviet Union became engaged in a nuclear arms race. They both spent billions and billions of dollars trying to build up huge stockpiles of nuclear weapons. Near the end of the Cold War the Soviet Union was spending around 27% of its total gross national product on the military. This was crippling to their economy and helped to bring an end to the Cold War. Truman worked tirelessly to clean up the postwar mess and establish a new international order. He helped create the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and funded the rebuilding of Japan under General Douglas MacArthur. After prosecuting Nazi war criminals at the Nuremberg trials, Truman in 1947 also outlined the Marshall Plan, which set aside more than $10 billion for the rebuilding and re-industrialization of Germany. Although Stalin joined with the United States in founding the United Nations, he fought Truman on nearly every other issue. He protested the Marshall Plan as well as the formation of the World Bank and IMF. In defiance, he followed through on his plan to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Germany by setting up pro-Communist governments in Poland and other Eastern European countries. As a result, the so-called iron curtain soon divided East from West in Europe. Stalin also tried unsuccessfully to drive French, British, and American occupation forces from the German city of Berlin by blocking highway and railway access.The Berlin crisis, as well as the formation of the Eastern block of Soviet-dominated countries in Eastern Europe, caused foreign policy officials in Washington to believe that the United States needed to check Soviet influence abroad in order to prevent the further spread of Communism. Kennedy’s greatest Cold War challenge came in Cuba. Hoping to topple Cuba’s new pro-Communist revolutionary leader, Fidel Castro, Kennedy authorized the CIA to train and arm a force of more than 1,000 Cuban exiles and sent them to invade Cuba in the spring of 1961. When this Bay of Pigs invasion failed embarrassingly, Kennedy authorized several unsuccessful assassination attempts against Castro. Outraged, Castro turned to the USSR for economic aid and protection. Khrushchev capitalized on the opportunity and placed several nuclear missiles in Cuba. Kennedy consequently blockaded the island nation, pushing the United States and the USSR to the brink of nuclear war. Khrushchev ended the terrifying Cuban missile crisis when he agreed to remove the missiles in exchange for an end to the blockade. Kennedy also removed American missiles from Turkey and agreed to work on reducing Cold War tensions. Tragically, Kennedy was assassinated in late 1963, just as tensions were rising
The Impact of the Cold War
Can you imagine a war that lasted nearly 50 years and was the cause for many developments in military and technology, but contained no fighting or battles? That war is the Cold War. The Cold War was a conflict between the world’s two superpowers at the time that was a power struggle between them and resulted in many technological advancements and a major arms race, though it never reached a point of actual armed combat. It began after the end of World War II, in 1945, as…
The Cold War
In 1945, the main reason for the start of the cold war was the alliance between America and USSR. It’s was called the Cold War because of how there was no active war between them, their fear of nuclear escalation kept them apart. USSR wanted to prevent Germany’s invasion by spreading communism through Eastern Europe. America didn’t agree so much with the idea of communism because they followed democracy. America had begun using their atomic weapons and the Soviets feared it…
The topic of the Cold War parallels with one ideal, the ideal of Communism. The threat of Communism in our country and our allies dominated the United States’ mindset throughout the mid to late 20th century. It seemed as though war and hardship had a way of following the United States. The people of the United States looked to one person, the president, to pave the road through this time period and find a final solution for peace. The decades of the Cold War are marked by three presidents who…
I believe that the start of the ‘Cold War’ was due to the Soviet Union. This is because of the mutual distrust of Josef Stalin and his alleged allies, especially with the USA’s newly elected Prime Minister, Harry Truman. Furthermore, Stalin appeared to have exterior motives, which he concealed from the other leaders, which included accommodating and expanding his sphere of influence in Eastern Europe.
This resulted in suspicion and tension between all countries. Also, many of the disagreements…
6 June 2014
The Effects of the Cold War on Canada
Since the beginning of time, humans have thrived through their own wars. Whether they be internal, personal, or worldwide, they have all undergone the struggle, fight, and passion of war. Yet, in the late 1940s, “war” changed forever. In the post World War II era from 1946 to 1991, a universal conflict arose between two of the worlds leading superpowers, the communist…
The Cold War
The cold war was a war that sparked controversies between nations. The causes
of the cold war was, of course, a major part of the outcomes of the war. Also, the
turning points of the war was very important. Finally, Canada during the cold war was
very important to not only our country but a contribution to the war itself. The cold war
frightened many Canadians and people all over the world of certain devastation itself.
The causes of the cold war were possibly the most important parts of the war…
The Cold War was a sustained state of political and military tension between the superpowers of the United States of America and its allies on one side, and the Soviet
Union and its satellite states on the other . Politically, Australia would undergo a dramatic shift in policy with reference to how the government dealt with individual movements, as well as trying to avoid disentangling civil and political affairs with the obvious added pressures of the Cold War . Publicly it became evident…
World Civilization II
The Cold War dated from 1945-1991. The Cold War was the result of political and military tension between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Cold War got its name because both the United States and the Soviet Union both had access to nuclear weapons, and threatened to use them on one another. In 1991 the Soviet Union collapsed ending the Cold War.
As far as the world being more safe now that the Cold War is over, no I do not think that is factual.…
confirmed the wisdom of containment; when challenged, the Russians backed down
North Atlantic Treaty Organization; the U.S. joined in 1949; designed to counter a Soviet threat to Western Europe; first time the U.S. pledged to go to war if one of its allies was attacked
Communist takeover of China under Mao Zedong
October 1st, 1949, Mao established the People’s Republic of China; for Republican: Truman and “pro-Communists in the State Department” had “lost” China; for Democrats:…
Chapter 15 Notes
The Cold War
I. The Cold War Unfolds
a. After WWII, two great powers remained. The United States and the Soviet Union emerged as superpowers.
i. Superpowers – nations stronger than other powerful nations.
b. Two Sides Face Off
i. The United States led the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) in Western Europe, while the Soviet Union led the Warsaw Pact in Eastern Europe.
ii. The two alliances faced each other along the Iron Curtain, the line between the…