Biology Test Review Essay example

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Biology Review Chapter 3
Section 3.1
List the 6 different levels of organization that are studied by ecologists. Begin with the smallest and continue in order to the largest. (Be sure that you can define each level).
Species- group of similar organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
Population- group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area
Community- assemblage of different populations that live together in a defined area
Ecosystem- all organisms that live in a placer together with their physical environment
Biome- group of ecosystems that share similar climates and typical organisms
Biosphere- our entire planet with all its organisms and physical environments

Define and provide examples of abiotic and biotic factors
Biotic Factor- living part of an environment, ex: bullfrogs-insects
Abiotic Factor- nonliving part of the environment, ex: sunlight

Section 3.2
Describe and provide examples of the 2 main forms of energy that are used by organisms in an ecosystem.
Photosynthesis captures light energy to power chemical reactions. Primary producers like plants use photosynthesis.
Chemosynthesis produce carbohydrates through chemical energy. Deep ocean organisms use chemosynthesis. The main source of energy for life on earth is: sunlight

Define and provide an example of the following:
Autotroph (producers) – plants (organism that can capture energy and produce its own food
Photosynthesis – sunlight (uses light energy to cause chemical reactions
Chemosynthesis – chemical energy used to form carbohydrates
Heterotrophs (consumers)- animals (organism that consumes other things to live)
Detritivores- shrimp (feeds off of plant and animal remains or other dead matter

Be able to describe and give an example of a food chain.
A food chain is a series of steps in which organisms transfer energy by eating or being eaten. Plants leaves and seeds deer-bobcatalligatorvulture
Be able to describe a food web.
A food web is a network of complex interactions formed by the feeding relationships among the various organisms in an ecosystem.
Describe a tropic level and why it is important?
A trophic level is each step in a food web or food chain. Primary producers make up the first trophic level and various consumers occupy every other level.
Describe a Biomass pyramid and why it is important?
The biomass is the total amount of living tissue within a given trophic level. A pyramid of biomass illustrates the relative amount of living organic matter available at each trophic level in an ecosystem.

Section 3.3 Cycles of Matter
Energy flows one-way; matter is re-cycled within and between ecosystems - why is this important?

Water Cycle (look carefully at the diagram in text)
Describe 2 ways that water can enter the atmosphere.
Water enters the atmosphere sometimes inside living organisms and sometimes outside them. They enter as water vapor when they evaporate from the ocean or other bodies of water. Also, water can enter the atmosphere by evaporating from the leaves of plants through transpiration.
What process moves water through the cycle from the air to the ground?
Water falls to the surface through precipitation.
Describe 2 ways by which water may make its way to the ocean.
Surface runoff leads through rivers to lakes and oceans or sometimes water seeps into the ground and becomes groundwater. Groundwater can stream into lakes or oceans.
Carbon Cycle (look carefully at the diagram in the text) The important parts of the cycle include:
Biological processes - include photosynthesis, respiration and decomposition - all of these take up and release carbon and oxygen

Geochemical processes - erosion and volcanic activity release CO2 to the atmosphere and the oceans

Geological processes - decomposition of dead organisms and the conversion under pressure into coal and petroleum (fossil fuels), carbon stored underground

Human activities - mining, cutting and burning forests and fossil fuels,…