1.1 Explanation of citation and referencing
Citation and reference are often used to mean the same thing.
To cite is to point to evidence, authority or proof. To cite correctly you need to collect and assemble details of your information source, and note this in your text. There are two main methods of citing (author-date and numeric, sometimes known as footnote / endnote) although there are many individual variations, or styles. At Liverpool Hope we utilise the author-date method.
There are many accepted styles to present your references. Each style is a system with consistent rules about how to display a citation (including punctuation, font, capitalization and so on) within your text, footnotes, and the reference list. The name of the referencing style used within the sport department at Liverpool Hope is the Harvard Referencing Method. If you are doing a combined honours degree make sure you are aware of the system used in that subject, as it may be different from Sport. The reference list includes important details such as title and publisher. A bibliography lists any relevant items which you have used to write your work, but that are not necessarily cited in your work. Always check whether the assignment asks for a bibliography or a reference list.
Plagiarism is defined as taking, using, and passing off work as your own, the ideas or words of another. It is a very serious academic offence, and can result in your work being failed automatically. The best way to avoid it is to take careful notes of where you find your information, and always acknowledge the work of others. Such work may include sections of text, quotations, original ideas, graphics, diagrams, charts, tables and figures.
Quick guide to referencing:
Harvard Referencing System
Citing references within the text
In your written work, you are going to use your own ideas; but, you will need to incorporate other sources of work to provide support for your arguments or positions. There are two methods to include information you have gathered from other work: paraphrasing and quoting. In a paraphrase, you take the author's ideas, but you put them into your own words. In a quotation, you use the author's exact words in quotation marks and give credit to avoid plagiarism.
2.1 Direct quote
If you are using a direct quotation, make this clear, put it in inverted commas, and give the page reference.
e.g. : As Smith (1978, p.33) says " To know all is to forgive all".
This format also applies when you want to quote someone who is citing someone else.
e.g. "Smith says that to know all is to forgive all (cited by Green and Jones, p.47)".
Then mention Green and Jones in your references. This indicates that you have come across the quotation in the book by Green and Jones, so therefore there is no problem in including this in your reference list. As you have not read the book by Smith, it would be misleading to quote this in your references. There is nothing to stop you keeping the details of Smith's book separately should you or your tutor wish to follow it up in the future.
A paraphrase does not require a page number or quotation marks, but does need the author surname and date.
2.2.1 Authors name cited in the text
When making a reference to an authors work in your text, their name is followed by the year of publication of their work
e.g. Cormack (1994) stated that…
e.g. making reference to published work appears to be characteristic of writing for a professional audience (Cormack, 1994).
If the author/editor's surname is double barrelled with no hyphen, use the final surname in your alphabetical list.
e.g. if the author is Wynn Smith, cite him/her as Smith.
If the author/editor's surname is hyphenated, use the first surname in your alphabetical list.
e.g. if the author is