Qing Dynasty and Russia Essay

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Pages: 12

CHAPTER 20 NOTES

CIVIL WAR AND THE INVASION OF KOREA (1500-1603)
1.) Politics - The government was decentralized where power was now distributed to several daimyos who were subject to the shogun and the emperor at the same time. They had their own castles and their own bureaucracy and usually fought each other for power in civil wars. Hideyoshi was one successful daimyo who was able to conquer Korea and China.

THE TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE, TO 1800
1.) Politics - After Hideyoshi's death, the new shogun, Tukugawa Ieyasu was able to establish the Tokugawa shogunate where the military government was more centralized although the daimyo still had the most power and were always in conflict and war against each other.

2.) Economy - Japan had a lot of commodities and trading relations with other places because this shogunate had more of an economic integration than a unity in politics. They had good roads and maritime transportation that assisted tradings to a lot of places because of the requirement of daimyos to visit Edo which was the new administrative capital. They also had the skills in making steels, producing porcelain and lacquer. Wealthy families who owned companied were essential for the development of the economy of Japan as they were the ones who participated in trades and manufacturing, finance and transport.

3.) Social - The samurai became more educated and was now attuned with the affairs of the state. They participated in trade and were the regular customers of merchants who sold commodities.

JAPAN AND THE EUROPEANS
1.) Politics - The shogun in China was now very successful in his authority as he was able to restrict and control the number of ships that came from China. Although this was quite unsuccessful because most of the regional lords were greedy and wanted access to more trade from the other countries. He was able to close down relations with the Europeans as well so as to limit the Christianization of the people in Japan.

2.) Religion
- The European influence on Japan was responsible for the spread of Christianity to the people and the adaptation and conversion of the people to other religions such as from the Jesuits, Dominicans and the Franciscans who were eventually persecuted by the new shogunate that opposed their religion to be foreign.

Politics - The Tokugawa government now emerged in Japan and it was the one who controlled the Chinese ships that came in their country and the tradings that happened.

EAST ASIAN PORCELAIN (ENVIRONMENT AND TECHNOLOGY)
1.) Economy - Japan had a great trading relationship with the Dutch East India Company where they usually manufactured porcelain that they made with a wide range in design and was favored by the Dutch. Soon these porcelain designs were copied and imitated by Chinese as well as Europeans who favored these designs. They manufactured porcelain vases, plates, vessels, dishes and pots.

ELITE DECLINE AND SOCIAL CRISIS
1.) Politics - The Tokugawa government in Japan maintained the Confucian idea that the country's wealth should be based on agriculture and that the growing power of the merchant class should be abolished because they belonged to lowly positions in society. The government also sought to maintain rice prized within the government as well as lessen the economic decline of the samurai in the society by controlling interest rates of rick brokers who could heighten the rice price to suite their interests. They were still a decentralized system which created conflicts in power. One conflict was when ronins decided to avenge their masters death by killing the senior minister that charged the master to commit sepukku. The government did not know how to punish this, if they denied the righteousness of the ronin they would deny the samurai values, but if they accepted it then they would create social chaos among the people for approving of murder.

2.) Art - The growing merchant…