Questions On Sociology

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Persons: individuals that make up a society, influencing and interacting with each other, they are shaped by their society and culture
Society: network of interactions between persons, groups, institutions, organization etc
Culture: ways of thinking, feeling and behaving demonstrated through beliefs, customs and values that’s binds a society together
Environment: physical setting of a society and also the psychological setting, how you feel, behave and think in situations.
Time: measured in past, present and future, a constant in all societies, includes continuity and change
Micro World: world you know through personal experience-family, friends, peers
Macro World: world you know through public knowledge-media
Power: ability to influence someone to do something they wouldn’t normally do
Authority: legitimate use of persuasion/influence
Gender: socially constructed differences between males and females, not always true, the values society places on them
Technology: tools society uses to make tasks easier

The Nature of Social and Cultural Research Methodologies

examine the nature and characteristics of primary and secondary research
Primary: conduct yourself, first hand info, may require interpretation
Secondary: collection and interpretation of work of others, requires interpretation

distinguish between quantitative and qualitative research
Quantitative: can be measured and compared to a standard and turned into graphs/tables
Qualitative: subjective info-thoughts/opinions, requires interpretation, allows one to understand/evaluate a topic from a range of viewpoints, have accept opinions uncritically

examine the characteristics of the following social and cultural research methodologies and techniques
Survey: short set of closed questions used to get a societies response to a situation, quantitative, represents samples of a specific population
Adv: efficient way of collecting info from large number of respondents, simple to compile, easy to administer, determine attitudes of a groups, quick to answer, anonymity ensures honest answers
Disadv: no assurance of honesty, specific qu, qu misinterpreted
Case Study: collection of data related t an individual/small group y by combining a number of methodologies – interviews, observation and secondary research – qualitative
Adv: great detail, intense focus
Disadv: generalizations, info misinterpreted
Participant Observation: researcher becomes immersed in behavior being observed and participates, aims to gain a close familiarity with a given group of individuals and ther practices
Adv: primary info, fully immersed-more understanding and empathy
Disadv: behavior may be changed , unethical, controversial
Content Analysis: study and interpretation of any written or visual material, quantitative so you can make comparisons. Identifies the presence or absence of patterns, tendencies or recurring theme
Adv: provides background info, accurate, can detect bias in media
Disadv: researcher shows bias, time consuming
Focus Group: group interview-topic given-researcher coordinates discussion- 3-8 participants. Draws upon respondents attitudes, beliefs, experiences, and reactions in a way which would not be practicable in surveys.
Adv: opinions, interactive, new ideas emerge
Disadv: info not useful, difficulties in selecting right participant, forceful decisions, difficult to manage, bias
Action Research: recognize problem in w/place-devisee plan to counteract it-implement-observe-reflect-revise
Adv: dynamic, experimental=>positive outcomes
Disadv: time consuming, beyond student research


Structured: oral survey, qu prepared in advance
Semi-structued: qu prepared but free to ask follow up qu, mixture of open/closed qu
Unstructured: free flowing, no prepared qu- discussion
Adv: personal/emotional info, able to ask further qu/give explanations
Disadv: time consuming, fewer samples collected, depends on comfort level, might influence answer,